Glossary

Wood Supply - Forest Fires - Forest Insects - Forest Products - Silviculture - Revenues - Pest Control Product Use

Wood Supply

Annual allowable cut (AAC)—the volume or area that may be harvested annually under existing regulations; the term “allowable annual cut” is used in British Columbia.

Area-based tenure—a licence agreement based on a specified area of land under management.

Area control—regulation of harvesting based on the amount of area harvested.

Crown land—land that is owned by the Crown; referred to as federal Crown land when it is owned by Canada and as provincial Crown land when owned by a province.

Forecasting method—the approach used to predict future stand-level and/or forest-level values. growing stock – the standing inventory of timber at any point in time.

Forest land—Areas of land where tree canopies cover more than 10 percent of the total area and the trees, when mature, can grow to a height of more than 5 metres. Does not include land that is predominantly urban or used for agricultural purposes.

Long run sustained yield (LRSY)—an estimate of the maximum, non-declining volume that could be harvested if all stands were harvested at the age when mean annual increment is at a maximum.

Management unit—a defined unit of land that forms the basic area for planning and management purposes.

Mean annual increment—at a given age, the average net annual growth of a stand to that point.

Net immature area—the portion of the net landbase supporting stands that have merchantable crops but that have not yet reached rotation age.

Net landbase—the forest area on which harvesting activities can take place.

Net mature area—the portion of the net landbase supporting stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and are at or past rotation age.

Net regenerating area—the portion of the net landbase supporting stands that are stocked but that do not yet support merchantable crops.

Other land with tree cover—Areas of land where tree canopies cover more than 10 percent of the total area and the trees, when mature, can grow to a height of at least 5 metres. Includes treed areas on farms, in parks and gardens, and around buildings. Also includes tree plantations established mainly for purposes other than wood production, such as fruit orchards.

Other wooded land—Areas of land where 1) tree canopies cover 5–10 percent of the total area and the trees, when mature, can grow to a height above 5 metres; or 2) shrubs, bushes and trees together cover more than 10 percent of the area. These areas include treed wetlands (swamps) and land with slow-growing and scattered trees. They do not include land that is predominantly agricultural or urban

Optimization—a forecasting method in which a description of current conditions, constraints, rules for change, and objectives are captured to identify a set of tactics that will provide an ideal balance of objectives.

Planning horizon—the period of years over which forest management activities and their impacts on forest values are projected.

Productive Crown land—provincially owned land capable of producing a merchantable stand within a defined period of time.

Productive landbase—the portion of the total forested landbase supporting stands of trees.

Rotation—the planned number of years between the stand establishment and its final cutting at a specified stage of maturity.

Simulation—a forecasting method in which a description of current conditions, constraints, tactics, and rules for change are captured to predict the impact of the tactics on expected future values.

Sustainability—the quality of a state or process that allows it to be maintained indefinitely; the principles of sustainability integrate three closely interlinked elements—the environment, the economy, and the social system—into a system that can be maintained in a healthy state indefinitely.

Tenure—socially defined agreement held by individuals or groups, recognized by legal statutes or customary practice, regarding the “bundle of rights and duties”” of ownership, holding, access, and/or use of a particular land unit or the associated resources (such as individual trees, plant species, water, and minerals).

Timber flow policy—the rule(s) governing the pattern of future timber harvest levels.

Timber supply analysis—an assessment of future timber supplies over long planning horizons (more than 200 years) by using timber supply models for different scenarios identified in the planning process.

Timber supply model—an analytical model that simulates the harvest and growth of collections of forest stands over several decades according to specific data and management assumptions.

Total landbase—the total area on which management objectives are to be implemented and evaluated.

Volume-based tenure—a licence agreement based on a specified volume of wood to be harvested.

Volume control—regulation of harvesting based on the amount of area harvested.

Wood supply—the timber harvesting opportunities associated with a specific forest condition, management strategy, and timber flow policy.

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Forest Fires

Note: The number in parentheses refers to the source of the definition; however, the definitions from the sources may be paraphrased, updated, or edited to reflect house style and are not necessarily quoted directly.

CAUSE CLASS

Various reasons for forest fire occurrence.

Human activities

  • Recreation Fires caused by people engaged in any recreational activity, or by their equipment.
  • Residents Fires resulting from activities of people living in a forested or partly forested area, including agricultural areas.
  • Forest industry Fires caused by people or machines involved in the production of forest products.
  • Railways Fires caused by any machine, employee, contractor, or passenger associated with railroad operations.
  • Other industry Fires caused by industrial activity other than forest industry or railroads.
  • Incendiary Fires started willfully for the purpose of mischief, grudge or gain.
  • Miscellaneous Any fire whose cause is known but does not fit any of those listed.

Other

  • Lightning Includes fire caused directly or indirectly by lightning.
  • Unknown Includes fires of indeterminable cause. (4)

LEVEL OF PROTECTION

  • Intensive protection zone includes forested lands of high value and areas where a risk to human life exists. (2)
  • Limited protection zone includes remote forested lands or other areas of low value where intensive forest protection cannot be justified economically. (2)

MATURITY CLASS

Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes. (3)

Regeneration and immature

  • Regeneration The renewal of a forest crop by natural or artificial means. Also, the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. (3) In this context, it is the crop, not the act of renewal, that is being described.
  • Immature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that have grown past the regeneration stage but are not yet mature. (3)

Merchantable forest (subtotal)

Trees or stands that have attained sufficient size, quality, or volume to make them suitable for harvesting. The term does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. (3) It includes mature, overmature, and uneven-aged forests.

  • Mature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands if an overmature class has not been recognized). (3)
  • Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that grow past the mature class, where net growth increment declines as trees lose vigor and die. (3)
  • Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10 to 20 years. (3)
  • Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The maximum difference in age permitted is usually 10 to 20 years; larger differences of up to 25% of the rotation age may be allowed if the stand will not be harvested until it is 100 to 200 years old. It includes regeneration, immature, mature, and overmature. (3)

MONTH

Fire statistics are reported for the calendar year and not for the fiscal year. For the number of forest fires, the month corresponds to the start date of the forest fires, unless specified otherwise. For the area burned, the month corresponds to the extinguished date of the forest fires. The category "Unknown" ensures that forest fires for which the month has not been identified are accounted for in the total.

FIRE SIZE CLASS

Expanded classification provides a better accounting of the larger forest fires.

PRODUCTIVITY CLASS

  • Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested such as clearcut lands, northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use, and plantations.
  • Timber-productive land Forest land that is capable of producing a merchantable stand within a reasonable length of time. (1)
  • Timber-unproductive land Forest land that is incapable of producing a merchantable stand within a reasonable length of time. (1)
  • Other areas It covers all the forest land not accounted for in the other classes. It may include some small water bodies and other cover types (muskeg, rock, barrens, marshes, meadows, etc.) that are too small to map.

RESPONSE CATEGORY

  • Full Dedicated attempt to control the fire as soon as possible, consistent with resource availability and values at risk.
  • Modified Attempt to control a fire in a limited way such that only isolated values threatened by a fire are protected, or attempt to monitor a fire only until it goes out naturally.
  • None No attempt to control the fire.

STOCKING CLASS

(On timber-productive forest land) A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm. (1)

  • Stocked Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree cover includes seedlings and saplings. (1)
  • Nonstocked Land capable of producing but generally lacking in tree growth. (1)

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Forest Insects

Major Insects

Eastern hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria) An insect defoliator native to North America that occurs from the Atlantic coast westward to Alberta. The preferred hosts are balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Outbreaks of the insect tend to be sudden and can kill trees in 1-2 years, especially in Newfoundland, where outbreaks are frequent and serious.

Eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) A native North American insect considered to be the most destructive pest of fir (Abies sp.) and spruce (Picea sp.) forests. The insect occurs throughout the native range of fir and is reported from 25 tree species including firs, spruces, pines (Pinus spp.), hemlocks (Tsuga spp.), larches (Larix spp.) and one species of juniper (Juniperus sp.)

Forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) A native North American insect and a pest of hardwoods. The insect is widely distributed from coast to coast and defoliates trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). During outbreaks it will attack other hardwood species.

Gypsy moth, European race (Lymantria dispar) A defoliating insect introduced into North America in 1869. This alien species is a serious pest of hardwoods and its range now includes the Maritimes, Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia.

Jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus) A native North American insect and a close relative of the spruce budworm. The insect is a solitary defoliator whose range coincides almost exactly with that of its preferred host, jack pine (Pinus banksiana). In Canada it is found from New Brunswick to British Columbia. Serious outbreaks are reported in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.

Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) A native insect and a serious pest of mature pines in western Canada. Major infestations occur in all forests with significant pine composition. Outbreaks last 8-10 years and seriously deplete pine stands.

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Forest Products

MAPLE PRODUCTS

Includes syrup, sugar, taffy, and butter.

ROUNDWOOD

Roundwood corresponds to sections of tree stems, with or without bark. It includes logs, bolts, pulpwood, posts, pilings, and other products still "in the round" in the subcategory called industrial roundwood. It also includes fuelwood and firewood. (1)

Industrial roundwood Includes logs and bolts, pulpwood, and other industrial roundwood.

  • Logs Stem of a tree after it has been felled; the raw material from which lumber, plywood, and other wood products are processed. (1)
  • Bolts Raw material used in the manufacture of shingles and shakes; short logs to be sawn for lumber or peeled for veneer. (1)
  • Pulpwood Wood used to produce pulp used in the manufacture of paper products. Pulpwood is usually wood that is too small, of inferior quality, or the wrong species to be used in the manufacture of lumber or plywood. (1)
  • Other industrial roundwood Includes poles, pilings, and other products still in the round.

Fuelwood Wood salvaged from mill waste, cull logs, branches, etc. and used to fuel fires in a boiler or furnace. (1)

Firewood Wood to be used as fuel (1) in a household or for recreational needs.

SPECIES GROUP

Softwoods Cone-bearing trees having needle- or scale-like leaves, belonging to the botanical group Gymnospermae. Also, stands of such trees and the wood produced by them.

Hardwoods Trees with broad leaves that are usually shed annually, belonging to the botanical group Angiospermae. Also, stands of such trees and the wood produced by them.

TENURE

The holding, particularly as to manner or term, of a property where the responsibility for forest management rests with the forest owner. (2)

Provincial Crown land

  • Long-term licence Public lands held under long-term licences such as Forest Management Agreement (FMA), Tree Farm Licence (TFL), Timber Supply and Forest Management Agreement (TSFMA), or equivalent.
  • Other tenure Public lands, other than those under long-term licence, held under a variety of tenure arrangements or volume allotments; for example, unregulated tenure (timber licence, timber berth) in British Columbia.

Territorial Crown land

Land within the jurisdiction of a territorial government or the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.

Private land

  • Industrial land Land owned by a large corporate industry for commercial forestry purposes. (3)
  • Nonindustrial land Land owned by corporations or individuals that may or may not be used for commercial forestry purposes. (3) These may include churches, municipalities, villages, townships, companies, limited partnerships, organizations, and associations.

Federal land

  • Indigenous land Lands within Indigenous reserves or Indigenous settlements. (3)
  • National parks Public lands administered by the federal government (Parks Canada) in perpetuity for recreation, wildlife, heritage, etc.
  • Other federal land Other crown land within the jurisdiction of the federal government. Includes lands held by the Departments of National Defence, Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service, Transport Canada, the National Capital Commission, and other Crown Corporations. (3)

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Silviculture

Note: The number in parentheses refers to the source of the definition; however, the definitions from these sources may be paraphrased, updated, or edited to reflect house style and are not necessarily quoted directly.

DIRECT SEEDING The artificial systematic sowing of seeds by manual or mechanical means in an area on which a forest stand is to be raised. (5)

HARVESTING METHOD

Clearcut (even-aged management) A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially. Clearcutting can be done in blocks, strips or patches. (5) This method can be distinguished from seed tree and shelterwood methods in that trees are left because of operational or utilization constraints, rather than as a means to secure regeneration.

  • 1-stage and 2-stage
    • 1-stage: The timber crop is removed from the harvest block, strip or patch, as a single silvicultural treatment. Operational objectives could entail that this volume be removed over several operating seasons.
    • 2-stage: Two harvests are prescribed to remove the existing timber crop. The first stage is normally timed to salvage volumes that are vulnerable to loss by insect and disease agents or to remove one of several stories in a multi-storied stand. The second stage removes the balance of the crop and creates the potential for regeneration establishment. The time lag between first and second harvests typically spans many operating seasons.
  • Shelterwood Removal of the mature timber in a series of cuttings that extend over a relatively short portion of the rotation, by means of which the establishment of essentially even-aged reproduction under the partial shelter of the remaining trees is encouraged.
  • Seed-tree (method) A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups. The objective is to create an even-aged stand. (5)

Selection (uneven-aged management) A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips.

Thinning A cutting made in an immature crop or stand primarily to accelerate diameter increment, but also, by suitable selection, to improve the average form of the trees that remain. (5)

  • Commercial thinning A thinning in which harvested tress are removed from the site and used for commercial purposes. (5)

OWNERSHIP/TENURE The holding, particularly as to manner or term, of a property where the responsibility for forest management rests with the forest owner. Legislation defines a number of forestry tenures by which the cutting of timber and other user rights to Crown land are assigned.

Provincial Crown land

  • Long-term licence Public lands held under long-term licences such as the Forest Management Agreement (FMA), Tree Farm Licence (TFL), Timber Supply and Forest Management Agreement (TSFMA), or equivalent.
  • Other tenure Public lands, other than those under long-term licence, held under a variety of tenure arrangements or volume allotments; for example, unregulated tenure (timber licence, timber berth) in British Columbia.

Territorial Crown land Areas within the jurisdiction of a territorial government or of the Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (6)

Private land

  • Industrial Areas owned by a large corporate industry for commercial forestry purposes. (6)
  • Nonindustrial Areas owned by small corporations or individuals that may or may not be used for forestry purposes. (6)

Federal land

  • Indigenous land Lands within Indigenous reserves or Indigenous settlements. (5)
  • National parks Public lands administered by the federal government (Parks Canada) in perpetuity for recreation, wildlife, heritage, etc.
  • Other federal land Other crown land within the jurisdiction of the federal government. Includes lands held by the departments of National Defence, Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service, Transport Canada, the National Capital Commission, and other Crown Corporations. (6)

PLANTING Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. (5)

SCARIFICATION (i) Loosening the topsoil of open areas or breaking up the forest floor to assist the germination of natural seed from either standing trees or slash or to promote the occurrence of coppice (natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts) or sucker growth (a shoot or tree originating from roots). (ii) A chemical treatment applied to seed to enhance germination. (5)

SEEDLING A young tree, grown from seed, from the time of germination to the sapling stage, having a diameter at breast height of no more than 1 cm and a height of no more than 1.5 m. (5)

SIZE OF HARVEST AREA (OR CUT BLOCK) Information on legislation and policies that govern the size of harvest areas, current logging practices, and average size of harvest areas (where it is meaningful and available) can be found in the provincial/territorial profiles.

SITE PREPARATION (This definition has been modified in recent years to clarify the distinction between it and scarification.)

(1975-1989): Site preparation is a mechanical, fire, chemical, or hand treatment that modifies the site to provide favourable conditions for natural or artificial regeneration.

(1990 and later): ... to provide favourable conditions for planting or direct seeding.

Prescribed burning The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish predetermined forest management or other land-use objectives. (7)

Mechanical treatment This category of treatment includes lopping and scattering, crushing, windrowing, ploughing, harrowing, and disc trenching.

  • Lopping and scattering: Lopping the slash created after felling and spreading it more or less evenly over the ground without burning. (5)
  • Crushing: The compaction of slash and brush by machinery. (5)
  • Windrowing: Concentrating slash , brushwood, etc. in a row to clear the intervening ground between rows. (5)
  • Ploughing: Operation designed to loosen compacted soils and/or to pull the roots of unwanted plants out of the ground by means of single- or double-moldboard ploughs or special shaping devices pulled by a tractor, bulldozer, or similar equipment. (5)
  • Harrowing: Scarification technique using disks to break small slash and the organic layer and to cut vegetation, loosening and incorporating these into the soil. (5)
  • [Disc] trenching: Site preparation technique creating a more or less continuous furrow, with surface debris, duff, and low vegetation scattered to one side, using shaping devices puller or often hydraulically powered by a prime mover. (5)

Chemical treatment The application of any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, and woody plants, and their seeds.

Other site preparation This category of treatment includes manual treatment, mixed methods, ploughing-harrowing, windrow and disk trench, residual removal, and other site preparation.

[STAND] TENDING Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation, but not regeneration cuttings or site preparation. (5)

Release Freeing a tree or group of trees from more immediate competition by cutting or otherwise eliminating growth that is overtopping or closely surrounding them. (5)

  • Mechanical treatment: Involving the use of machinery that conveys the operator over the terrain.
  • Chemical
  • Manual treatment: Involving the use of powered or non-powered hand-held tools.

Thinning A cutting made in an immature crop or stand primarily to accelerate diameter increment, but also, by suitable selection, to improve the average form of the trees that remain. (5)

  • Precommercial thinning A thinning that does not yield trees of commercial value, usually designed to improve crop spacing. (5)

Fertilizing The application of chemical or organic fertilizers to increase the unit area soil productivity. (5)

Pruning The removal of live or dead branches from standing trees.

Drainage The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface run-off and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. (5)

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Revenues

STATEMENT OF REVENUES (from the sale of timber on provincial crown land)

Revenues from the sale of crown timber are reported for each province and territory as appropriate to the circumstances in each jurisdiction.

Stumpage charges Payments made to the Crown for timber harvested, usually based on a rate per cubic metre of timber harvested.

Rent charges Annual rent in British Columbia in terms of a rate per unit of volume of allowable annual cut.

Area/holding charges Annual royalty paid to the Crown for the rent of a forest territory, generally based on a rate per unit of area (ground rent). Also includes payment to the Crown for the right to exploit crown timber (royalty), usually based on a rate per area of forest land.

Reforestation levies Payments, usually made into a trust fund, based on a rate per cubic metre of timber harvested. This fund helps cover the costs of silvicultural treatments on crown land.

Protection fees Fees collected by the Crown (or its agencies) to ensure the protection of the forest against fire, insects, and diseases.

Permit and licence fees Fees collected from owners of logging operations operating under a permit or licence. Also includes revenues received for mill permits and export licence fees.

Sales and rentals Fees payable to the Crown for the transfer of cutting rights from one company to another. Also includes revenues collected by the Crown from the sale of maps or databases and rentals of equipment.

Other revenues Collected from bonus bids, penalties, and fines imposed on loggers who fail to respect regulations regarding the harvest of timber, and interest charges for late payment. Also includes all other revenue collected by the agency responsible for the forest sector program.

TENURE HOLDERS' RESPONSIBILITIES

The operational responsibility borne by the Crown and forest industry (tenure holder) for different aspects of forest management can differ depending on tenure type. Operational responsibility includes reforestation, protection, and road building. It might also require the operation of a processing plant.

TENURE HOLDERS' RIGHTS

Portrays the direct financial costs, such as stumpage charges, rent and/or holding charges, and reforestation and/or protection charges, under which crown timber is harvested based on the tenure type.

VALUE OF SHIPMENTS (of goods of own manufacture)

Net selling value of goods produced by the reporting establishment, or for its account, from its own materials (Statistics Canada, Survey of Manufactures).

VALUE OF EXPORTS (domestic)

Includes goods grown, extracted, or manufactured in Canada, including goods of foreign origin that have been materially transformed in Canada (Statistics Canada, International Trade Division).

WAGES and SALARIES

Compiled before deductions for income tax and employee-paid portions of both employee benefits and social insurance. Includes payments for regular work, overtime, and paid leave as well as bonuses, commissions paid to regular employees, and severance pay. Withdrawals of working owners and partners of unincorporated businesses are excluded (Statistics Canada, Survey of Manufactures).

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Pest Control Product Use

Note: the number in parentheses refers to the source of the definition; however, the definitions from these sources may be paraphrased, updated, or edited to reflect house style and are not necessarily quoted directly.

PEST CONTROL PRODUCT (pesticide)

A product, organism, or substance that is used to control a pest.

INSECTICIDE

A pest control product that is active against insects.

HERBICIDE

A pest control product that is active against plants.

OWNERSHIP/TENURE

The holding, particularly as to manner or term, of a property where the responsibility for forest management rests with the forest owner. (1)

Provincial Crown land

  • Long-term licence Public lands held under long-term licences such as Forest Management Agreement (FMA), Tree Farm Licence (TFL), Timber Supply and Forest Management Agreement (TSFMA), or equivalent. (1)
  • Other tenure Public lands, other than those under long-term licence, held under a variety of tenure arrangements or volume allotments; for example, unregulated tenure (timber licence, timber berth) in British Columbia. (1)

Territorial Crown land

Areas within the jurisdiction of a territorial government or Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2)

Private land

  • Industrial land Areas owned by a large corporate industry for ommercial forestry purposes. (2)
  • Nonindustrial land Areas owned by small corporations or individuals that may or may not be used for commercial forestry purposes. (2)

Federal land

  • Indigenous land Lands within Indigenous reserves or Indigenous settlements. (3)
  • National parks Public lands administered by the federal government (Parks Canada) in perpetuity for recreation, wildlife, heritage, etc.
  • Other federal land Other Crown land within the jurisdiction of the federal government. Includes lands held by the Departments of National Defence, Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service, Transport Canada, the National Capital Commission, and other Crown Corporations. (2)

COMPETING VEGETATION

Woody or herbaceous plants that compete with desirable species for light, nutrients, and water.

ACTIVE INGREDIENT

The part of a pesticide formulation that is the actual toxicant.

BIOLOGICAL PESTICIDE

A pest control product containing living organisms such as microbial organisms (virus, bacteria), nematodes, etc. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a microbial insecticide.

MSMA (monosodium methanearsonate)

A herbicide registered for pre-commercial thinning of young conifers and for control of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) in trap trees.

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