Forest Inventory

Canada’s National Forest Inventory (NFI) is an ongoing forest measurement program. Repeated measurements are taken at a network of sampling points across Canada to provide consistent information on the extent, composition and characteristics of Canada’s forests and how they are changing over time. Photo plots 2 km x 2 km in size are located on the national 20 km x 20 km sampling grid, with reduced sampling in some northern ecozones. Detailed ground measurements are taken at a subset of the NFI photo  plots.

The NFI produces the data that are needed by Canada  to report nationally and internationally on the state of Canada’s forests, inform forest sector transformation and climate change adaptation decisions, and conduct national scientific research  and policy activities.


Land cover Millions of hectares
Total area of land and water 998.5
Total land area 909.3
Forest land 347.6
Forest type on forest land Percent of area
Softwood 67.8%
Mixedwood 15.8%
Hardwood 10.5%
Temporarily non-treed 5.9%
Ownership of forest land Percent of area
Provincial 76.6%
Territorial 12.9%
Private 6.2%
Indigenous 2.0%
Federal 1.6%
Municipal 0.3%
Other 0.4%
Growing stock on forest land Millions of cubic meters
Total volume 47 320
Predominant tree genus on forest land Percent of volume
Spruce 47.3%
Poplar 13.1%
Pine 11.9%
Fir 7.4%
Hemlock 5.8%
Douglas-fir 3.5%
Birch 3.3%
Maple 3.0%
Others 4.8%


Excel format

Source: Canada's National Forest Inventory