Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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above-ground biomass [biomasse aérienne (n.f.)]
see biomass


accessory species [essence auxiliaire (n.f.)]
A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree. (3)


accessory systems [traitements combinés (n.m.)]
Any silvicultural system derived from one or more of the basic systems and not dependent on any particular method of regeneration. (3)


adjuvant [adjuvant (n.m.)]
An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants.


advance germination [germination physiologique (n.f.)]
see pregermination


advance growth [régénération préexistante (n.f.)]
see advance regeneration


advance regeneration [régénération préexistante (n.f.)]
Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.


adventitious [adventif(ve) (adj.)]
Of a plant part that develops outside the usual order of time and/or position, e.g., an adventitious bud arises from any part of a stem, leaf, or root but lacks vascular connection with the pith; an adventitious shoot derives from an adventitious bud; an adventitious root arises from parts of the plant other than a preexisting root, e.g., from a stem or leaf. (3)


aerial seeding [ensemencement aérien (n.m.)]
see seeding


afforestation [boisement (n.m.)]
The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. (3)


age [âge (n.m.)]
1. Of a tree:
  • breast height [âge à hauteur de poitrine]: The number of annual growth rings between the bark and the pith, as counted at breast height (1.3 m). (5)
  • harvest [âge de maturité]: The number of years required to grow from establishment to a specified condition of maturity.
  • stump [âge à hauteur de souche]: The number of annual growth rings between the bark and the pith, as counted at stump height (0.15 m) (5)
  • total [âge total]: The number of years elapsed since the germination of the seed, rooting of cuttings, or the budding of the sprout or root sucker.
2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: the average of the trees comprising it.
  • harvest [âge de récolte]: The number of years between the establishment and the final harvest of a forest crop. (5)
  • total [âge total]: The average total age of the trees comprising it. (5)


age class [classe d'âge (n.f.)]
A distinct group of trees or portion of growing stock recognized on the basis of age. (1)


age gradation [sous-classe d'âge (n.f.)]
An age class of one or at the most a few years. (3)


age-class distribution [répartition des classes d'âge (n.f.)]
The location and/or proportionate representation of different age classes in a forest. (3)


age-class interval [étendue d'une classe d'âge (n.f.)]
see age-class period


age-class period [étendue d'une classe d'âge (n.f.)]
The number of years within the limits of a given age class. (3)


agroforestry [agroforesterie (n.f.)]
The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. (26)


air layering [marcottage aérien (n.m.)]
Inducing root development on an undetached aerial portion of a plant, commonly by wounding it, treating it with a rooting stimulant, and wrapping it in moist material under a waterproof covering, so that the portion so treated is capable of independent growth after separation from the mother plant. (3)


air pruning [élagage aérien (n.m.)]
Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air.


air seeding [ensemencement aérien (n.m.)]
see seeding: aerial


all-aged [de tous âges (n.m.)]
Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. (3)


all-aged structure [structure équilibrée (n.f.)]
A stand in which trees of most or all age classes, from seedlings to mature trees, are represented. (1)


allelopathy [allélopathie (n.f.)]
The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism. (3)


allowable cut [possibilité de coupe (n.f.)]
The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. (5)


anchor chains [chaînes d'ancre (n.f.)]
Heavy chains, often with spikes welded to the links, used in drag scarification.


anchor-chain clearing [chaînes d'ancre (n.f.)]
see chaining


angle planting [plantation avec bêche (n.f.)]
see slit planting


arboriculture [arboriculture (n.f.)]
The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit. (3)


area ignition [allumage de zone (n.m.)]
The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area, either simultaneously or in quick succession, and so spaced that they soon coalesce, influence, and support each other to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire throughout the area. (6)


artificial regeneration [régénération artificielle (n.f.)]
Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. (1)


asexual reproduction [propagation asexuée (n.f.)]
Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule. (25)


associated species [essences associées (n.f.)]
see accessory species


auger planting [plantation à  la tarière (n.f.)]
Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. (3)


average annual stand depletion [épuisement annuel moyen (n.m.)]
see thinning intensity


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.