Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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backlog [arriéré (n.m.)]
An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.).


ball planting [plantation en motte (n.f.)]
Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil.

Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. (3)


band application [traitement par bande (n.m.)]
Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area.


band girdling [annélation totale (n.f.)]
Removing a broad band of bark, from several centimetres to a metre wide, all round a living bole with some sapwood or without, so as to kill (with or without the aid of herbicide), or at least weaken, the tree. (3)


band seeding [ensemencement par bandes (n.m.)]
Broadcast sowing of seeds along wide strips.


banding [cerclage (n.m.)]
Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band.


bare-root seedling [semis à racines nues (n.m.)]
see seedling


bark stripping [écorçage (n.m.)]
Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips.


basal area [surface terrière (n.f.)]
1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem. (5)

2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all the trees. (5)


basal bark treatment [traitement arboricide cortical (à  la base de l'arbre) (n.m.)]
A treatment for killing trees and brush in which a herbicide is applied, by sprayer or brush, to a band of bark encircling the basal portion of the stem. (3)


basal injection [aménagement de base (n.m.)]
Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary.

cf. extensive forest management


basic silviculture [plantation en panier (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Closely allied is box planting using various types of wooden boxes. (3


basket planting [plantation en panier (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Closely allied is box planting using various types of wooden boxes. (3)


bedding [billonnage (n.m.)]
A site preparation procedure in which the soil is mounded mechanically to provide a well-drained ridge on which seedlings are planted or seeds distributed naturally or directly.


biomass [biomasse (n.f.)]
The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. (3)


blading [vide, manque (n.m.)]
Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing. (3)


block cutting [coupe à  blanc par blocs (n.f.)]
Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites. (2)

Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting.


blowdown [chablis (n.m.)]
see windfall


box pruning [élagage latéral (des racines) (n.m.)]
Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit. (23)


breast height [hauteur de poitrine (n.f.)]
The standard height, 1.3 m above ground level, at which the diameter of a standing tree is measured. On sloping ground, breast height is usually measured on the uphill side of the tree. (5)


broadcast application [traitement en plein (n.m.)]
Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers with relative uniformity over the entire ground area. (3)


broadcast burning [brûlage extensif (n.m.)]
Allowing a controlled fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries, for reduction of fuel hazard, as a silvicultural treatment, or both. (3)


broadcast fertilizing [fertilisation à  la volée (n.f.)]
The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area.


broadcast seeding [ensemencement à  la volée (n.m.)]
The scattering of seed more or less evenly over a whole area on which a forest stand is to be raised. (3)


brush [broussailles (n.f.)]
Shrubs and stands of short, scrubby tree species that do not reach merchantable size. (5)

Sometimes includes woody and herbaceous plants that impede regeneration or growth of desirable species. Often rated as "brush hazard".


brush blade [lame de râteau (n.f.)]
A blade having scarifier teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large objects like tree roots and rocks off a site, leaving smaller stones, soil, etc. in place. (3)

In British Columbia, known as a Beale's blade, specially designed with forks or long teeth protruding from the bottom of the blade for piling and windrowing coarse woody debris. Blade usually has an opening on each end.


brush chopper [broyeuse de rémanents (n.f.)]
An implement with blades mounted on a horizontal power-driven shaft, for reducing the bulk of slash after felling and so facilitating planting. (3)


brush disposal [élimination des rémanents (n.f.)]
see slash disposal


brushing [râteau débroussailleur (n.m.)]
The removal of undesirable herbaceous and woody vegetation by manual or mechanical means. (3)


brush rake [débroussaillement (n.m.)]
see raking


budding [ébourgeonnage (n.m.)]
Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed. (25)


bud pruning [écussonnage (n.m.)]
Removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches. (3)


buffer strip [rideau vert (n.m.)]
A band of forest left relatively undisturbed so as to protect some element of the environment, such as a streambank from erosion; in experiments, refers to the strip of untreated area between adjacent treated areas.


bullet planting [plantation en cartouche (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. (3)


bush nursery [pépinière volante (n.f.)]
see field nursery


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.