Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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deadwood [bois mort (none)]
Timber produced from dead standing trees. (3)

More commonly, timber in dead standing trees.


debris [débris (n.m.)]
see slash


debudding [ébourgeonnage (n.m.)]
see bud pruning


deep chiseling [ameublissement profond (n.m.)]
A surface treatment that loosens compacted soils. (18)

In Saskatchewan, termed decompaction.


deep ploughing [labourage profond (n.m.)]
see ploughing


deep ripping [scarifiage profond (n.m.)]
see ripping


deforestation [déboisement (n.m.)]
Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially.


desirable plant species [espèces privilégiées (n.f.)]
Species that contribute to management objectives. (19)


diameter [diamètre (n.m.)]
  • diameter at breast height (dbh) [diamètre à hauteur de poitrine (dhp)]: The stem diameter of a tree measured at breast height (1.3 m above ground level). Unless otherwise stated, applies to the outside bark dimension. (5)
  • diameter at stump height (dsh) [diamètre ænbsp; hauteur de souche (dhs)]: The stem diameter of a tree measured at stump height. Stump height may be the actual height of a cut stump, or some arbitrarily selected standard. (5)
  • diameter inside bark (dib) [diamètre sans écorce]: The diameter of a tree or log excluding double bark thickness. (5)
  • diameter outside bark (dob) [diamètre avec écorce]: The diameter of a tree or log including bark. (5)
  • diameter over stubs (dos) [diamètre du c?ur noueux]: The outer diameter of the knotty core in pruned trees.


diameter-limit cutting [coupe au diamètre limite (n.f.)]
Removal of all merchantable trees above a specified minimum diameter, which in mixed stands may vary with species. (1)


diameter-limit felling [abattage au diamètre minimal (n.m.)]
see diameter-limit cutting


dibble planting [plantation au bâton (n.f.)]
Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. (3)


dibbling [plantation au bâton (n.f.)]
see dibble planting


dipping [trempage (n.m.)]
The immersion of seedling roots in a solution or water prior to planting.


direct seeding [ensemencement direct (n.m.)]
see seeding: direct


disbudding [ébourgeonnage (n.m.)]
see bud pruning


discing [déchaumage (n.m.)]
Scarification technique using disks to break small slash and the organic layer and to cut vegetation, loosening and incorporating these into the soil. (21)


disease [maladie (n.f.)]
Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. (3)


dominance potential [potentiel de dominance (n.f.)]
The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates. (22)


dominant crown class [classe de cime dominante (n.f.)]
see crown class: dominant


dominant thinning [éclaircie jardinatoire (n.f.)]
see thinning: selection


dominated tree [retardataire (n.m.)]
see crown class: intermediate


downed timber [bois gisant (n.f.)]
see downed tree


downed tree [arbre abattu (n.m.)]
Any tree that is lying on the ground, whether uprooted, stem-broken, or deliberately cut. (3)


drag scarification [scarifiage par traînage (n.m.)]
Towing one or more rows of anchor chains, sharkfin barrels, tractor pads, alone or in various combinations, to break up and possibly spread slash and to loosen the forest floor and topsoil or expose mineral soil.


drainage [drainage (n.m.)]
1. Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. (3)

2. Pedology: The frequency and duration of the periods when the soil is free of saturation or partial saturation. A measurable characteristic (including rapidity and extent), but generally assessed from profile morphology, e.g., graying and color, and landform. Commonly described in terms of subjective drainage classes, extending from very poorly drained to excessively drained. (3)


drill [rayon (n.m.)]
see drill seeder


drill seeder [semoir en ligne (n.m.)]
A mechanical device for sowing seed in furrowed lines (i.e., in drills).


drill seeding [ensemencement en ligne (n.m.)]
see drill seeder


drum chopper [déchiqueteuse à  tambour (n.f.)]
see slash chopper


dry packing [injection à  sec (none)]
In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form. (3)


dry pruning [élagage à  sec (none)]
see pruning


duff [humus (n.m.), litière (n.f.)]
A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor.


dysgenic [dysgénique (adj.)]
Detrimental to the genetic quality of a population and future generations. (25)

cf. eugenic


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.