Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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ecological amplitude [amplitude écologique (n.f.)]
see tolerance


ecological land classification [classification écologique des zones (n.f.)]
see forest site classification


ecosystem [écosystème (n.m.)]
The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat.


ecotype [écotype (n.m.)]
A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Ecotypes may only be evident when different provenances are tested in a uniform environment. (25)


effective seedling [semis établi (n.m.)]
Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop. All those seedlings in relation to the optimum are considered elements of the effective stocking. (3)


effective stocking [matériel relatif efficace (n.m.)]
see effective seedling


emergent [émergent (n.m.)]
A tree whose crown at maturity projects well above the level of the highest canopy. (3)


enrichment plantation [plantation d'enrichissement (n.f.)]
see improvement plantation


epicormic shoot [pousse adventive (n.f.)]
syn. sprout

A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. (1)


establishment [établissement (n.m.)]
The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning, thinning, and pruning. (3)


establishment period [période d'implantation (n.f.)]
The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment. (3)


eugenic [eugénique (adj.)]
Favorable to the genetic quality of a population. (11)

cf. dysgenic


even-aged [équienne (adj.)]
Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years; if the stand will not be harvested until it is 100 to 200 years old, larger differences up to 25% of the rotation age may be allowed. (5)

cf. uneven-aged


even-aged system [régime équienne (n.m.)]
Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. (1)


exotic [exotique (adj.)]
An introduced, non-native tree species.


extensive forest management [aménagement extensif (n.m.)]
Protection from fire and insects; reliance on natural regeneration.


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.