Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


fertilization [fécondation (n.f.)]
The union of the nucleus and other cellular constituents of a male gamete (sperm, pollen grain) with those of the female gamete (ovum, egg cell) to form a zygote from which may develop a new organism. (3)


fertilizer application [application d'engrais (n.f.)]
see fertilizing


fertilizing [fertilisation (n.f.)]
The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity. (3)


field germination [germination au champ (n.f.)]
Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival. (3)


field nursery [pépinière volante (n.f.)]
A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. (3)

Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.


filled seed [regarni (n.f.)]
see full seed


filler [graine pleine (n.m.)]
A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better. (3)


fill planting [remplissage (n.m.)]
The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration.

cf. interplanting


final cutting [coupe définitive (n.f.)]
The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established. (2)


fire hazard reduction [réduction du risque d'incendie (n.f.)]
Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire. (3)


forest [forêt (n.f.)]
1. Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. (3)

2. Silviculture/forest management: An area managed for the production of timber and other forest produce, or maintained under woody vegetation for such indirect benefits as the protection of watersheds, the provision of recreation areas, or the preservation of natural habitat. (3)


forestation [type forestier (n.f.)]
The establishment of forest, naturally or artificially, on an area, whether previously carrying forest or not. (3)

cf. afforestation, deforestation, reforestation


forest cover type [peuplement forestier (n.m.)]
see forest type


forest crop [génétique forestière (n.m.)]
see crop


forest genetics [hygiène sylvicole (n.f.)]
The study of heredity in forest trees. (11)


forest hygiene [amélioration forestière (n.f.)]
Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. (3)


forest improvement [unité d'aménagement forestier (n.f.)]
see timber stand improvement


forest management unit [modèle de forêt (n.f.)]
An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. (5)


forest model [pépinière forestière (n.m.)]
A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest.


forest nursery [plantation forestière (n.f.)]
see nursery


forest planting [pratiques forestières (n.f.)]
see planting


forest practices [rémanents (n.f.)]
Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands for the purpose of facilitating harvest or forest management, and any management of slash resulting from harvesting or improvement of tree species. (24)


forest residue [hygiène en forêt (n.m.)]
see slash


forestry [type forestier (n.f.)]
Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. The profitable exploitation of the resources intrinsic to forest land. "The science, the art and the practices of managing and using for human benefit the natural resources that occur on and in association with forest lands." (3)

cf. sustainable forestry


forest sanitation [classification de la station forestière (n.f.)]
see forest hygiene


forest site [type forestier (n.m.)]
see forest site type


forest site classification [amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers (n.f.)]
Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position.


forest site type [amélioration générale des arbres forestiers (n.m.)]
Generally, a category of forest or forest land, actual or potential. (3)


forest tree breeding [pépinière forestière (n.f.)]
The genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product.


forest tree improvement [type forestier (n.f.)]
The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands. (12)


forest tree nursery [création de forêt (n.f.)]
see nursery


forest type [foresterie (n.m.)]
A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. (5)


formation [période d'établissement (n.f.)]
All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. (3)


free-from-noncrop-competition (FNC) [établi (n.f.)]
syn. free-to-grow (FTG)

The condition of a forest stand when it is established and acceptable for entry into the productive timber land base. The stand must meet these criteria (locally defined): minimum stocking, desired species composition, minimum height development, and freedom from competition that impedes growth.

The term free growing is used in British Columbia.


free growing [éclaircie libre (adj.)]
see free-to-grow


free thinning [établi (n.f.)]
see thinning: free


frill girdling [annélation en encoches (n.f.)]
Girdling by making a series of downward, more or less overlapping incisions, generally for the introduction of herbicide. Spaced incisions are termed frill cuts. A double series of such incisions is referred to as double-frill girdling. (3)


frilling [incision par encoches groupées (n.f.)]
see frill girdling


frost heaving (heave, lift) [déchaussement par le gel (n.m.)]
Upward displacement of normal soil level as a result of expansion due to ice formation in frozen soil; in nurseries and plantations, the partial or total extrusion of seedlings or other small plants caused by such soil displacement. (3)


fuel plantation [plantation énergétique (n.f.)]
syn. fuelwood plantation

Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. (3)


full seed [graine pleine (n.f.)]
seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability. (3)


full-sibs [matériel sur pied relatif normal (n.m.)]
Trees with both parents in common. (11)

Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known.


full stocking [pleins germains (n.m.)]
see stocking


fungicide [fongicide (n.m.)]
Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores. (4)


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.