Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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genotype [génotype (n.m.)]
An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable, genetic characteristics, expressed in the phenotype.


geographic information system (GIS) [système d'information géographique (SIG) (n.m.)]
An information system that uses a spatial database to provide answers to queries of a geographical nature through a variety of manipulations, such as sorting, selective retrieval, calculation, spatial analysis, and modeling. (9)


geometric thinning [éclaircie géométrique (n.f.)]
see thinning: mechanical


germinability [viabilité germinative (n.f.)]
see viability


germinating energy [vigueur germinative (n.f.)]
see germinative energy


germinating quality [viabilité germinative (n.f.)]
see viability


germination capacity [faculté germinative (n.f.)]
see germinative capacity


germination energy [vigueur germinative (n.f.)]
see germinative energy


germination percent (power) [faculté germinative (n.f.)]
see germinative capacity


germination quality [viabilité germinative (n.f.)]
see viability


germination test [essai de germination (n.m.)]
A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample. (3)


germinative capacity [faculté germinative (n.f.)]
The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity gives the proportion of pure live seeds. (3)


germinative energy [vigueur germinative (n.f.)]
The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions. (3)


girdling [annélation (n.f.)]
1. Silviculture: Making more or less continuous incisions around a living stem, through at least both bark and cambium, generally with the object of killing the tree. Sometimes termed mechanical girdling, to distinguish it from herbicide girdling when herbicide is added. (7) Making a series of close downward and upward, i.e., V-shaped, incisions into the sapwood is termed notch-girdling.

2. Forest protection: Destruction (on the part of agencies other than human, e.g., insects, rodents) of tissue, particularly living tissue, in a rough ring around a stem, branch, or root. (3)

cf. frill girdling, bark stripping


graft [greffe (n.f.)]
n: A plant that has been grafted. (11)

v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite. (11)


granular application [application sous forme granulaire (n.f.)]
A general process by which fertilizers or herbicides in the form of grains are applied to a given area.


green manuring [application d'engrais vert (n.f.)]
Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers. (3)


green pruning [élagage en vert (n.m.)]
see pruning


ground clearance [préparation du site (n.f.)]
see ground preparation


ground preparation [préparation du terrain (n.f.)]
A general term for removing unwanted vegetation, slash, and even stumps, roots, and stones, from a site. (3)


group cutting [trouée (n.f.)]
see group method


group cutting method [système de coupes progressives par trouées (n.f.)]
see group method


group felling [trouée (n.f.)]
see group method


group method [mode de régénération par coupes progressives par trouées (n.m.)]
A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings. Regeneration within gaps is mainly natural, though often supplemented artificially; regeneration interval is fairly short and resultant crop is more or less even-aged and regular. (3)


group planting [plantation par bouquets (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees in groups. (3)


group selection [jardinage par groupes (n.m.)]
see group-selection method


group-selection method [jardinage par groupes (n.m.)]
A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. (1)


group shelterwood cutting [trouée de régénération (n.f.)]
see group method


growing stock [matériel sur pied (n.m.)]
All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. (3)


growth promoter [déclencheur de croissance (n.m.)]
Any agent present or provided as a supplement to the plant or its environment to activate growth.


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.