Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


hand weeding [désherbage manuel (n.m.)]
Removing the undesirable species inhibiting the growth of valued species manually.


hardening off [endurcissement (n.m.)]
Preparing seedlings or rooted cuttings for planting by gradually reducing water, nutrients, or day length, or by increasing light intensity and thus inducing changes in shoots that make them more resistant to exposure to full sunlight, desiccation, cold, etc. (1)


hard seed [graine dure (n.f.)]
Seed having coats that resist cracking or breaking and may be more or less impermeable to water.


hard snag [chicot dur (n.m.)]
A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable. (13)


hardwood(s) [feuillu(s) (n.m.)]
1. Trees belonging to the botanical group Angiospermae having broad leaves that, in temperate regions, are usually shed annually. Also, stands of such trees and the wood produced by them. (5)

2. A forest type in which 0-25% of the canopy (or of the basal area, in some jurisdictions) is softwood (conifereous). (5)


harrowing [hersage (n.m.)]
see discing


harvesting [récolte (n.f.)]
A general term for the removal of produce from the forest for utilization; comprising cutting, sometimes further initial processing (topping and trimming), and extraction.


heeling in [mise en jauge (n.f.)]
Temporary storage of seedlings by burial of root systems in a trench.


herbicide [herbicide (n.m.)]
Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, woody plants, and their seeds. (4)


heritability [héritabilité (n.f.)]
That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation. In progeny tests (based on sexually propagated material) it is described as narrow sense and is the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total (i.e., genetic + environmental = phenotypic) variance of a character; in clonal tests (based on vegetatively propagated material) it is described as broad sense and is the ratio of the total genetic variance to the total (i.e., phenotypic) variance of a character. (3)


high forest [futaie (n.f.)]
Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial, coppice forest of shorter rotation. (3)


high-forest systems [écrémage (n.m.)]
Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long. (3)


high-forest-with-reserves system [élagage élevé (n.f.)]
An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation. (3)


high grading [éclaircie par le haut (n.m.)]
A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand. (1)


high pruning [régime de la futaie (n.m.)]
see pruning


high thinning [futaie avec sur-réserves (n.f.)]
see thinning: crown thinning


hogging [déchiquetage (n.f.)]
Reducing wood to coarse chips, for fuel or the manufacture of wood pulp and wood chipboard. (3)


holdover [survivant (n.m.)]
see veteran


hole planting [plantation sur potets (n.f.)]
Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. In side-hole planting, the trees are set against the side. (3)


humus [humus (n.m.)]
1. A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded. Humus layer is a general term for the surface layers composed of or dominated by organic material, whether unincorporated or incorporated with mineral soil, or at some intermediate stage. (3)

2. More specifically, the more or less stable fraction of decomposed soil organic material, generally amorphous, colloidal, and dark colored. (3)


hybrid [hybride (n.m.)]
The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species). (3)


hydroseeding [ensemencement hydraulique (n.m.)]
Dissemination of seed hydraulically in a water medium. Mulch, lime, and fertilizer can be incorporated into the sprayed mixture. (18)


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.