Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L (n.f.)]
Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L.


lammas shoots [pousse d'été (n.f.)]
Extra leader growth extension late in the growing season. (10)


lateral pruning [élagage des racines latérales (n.m.)]
see box pruning


layering [marcottage (n.m.)]
The rooting of an undetached branch, lying on or partially buried in the soil, or surrounded by moist fiber sealed in a plastic wrap (air layering), termed a layer, which is capable of independent growth after separation from the parent plant.


layering method [méthode du marcottage (n.f.)]
Regeneration of a forest stand using layerings. (10)


leave strip [rideau d'arbres (n.m.)]
A strip of timber left standing between two clearcut areas. (3)


leave tree [arbre marqué en réserve (n.m.)]
A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled. (3)


liberation [dégagement (n.m.)]
see release


lift [élagage (n.m.)]
A stage in the sawlog pruning regime for a tree; usually three separate lifts are needed to ensure a merchantable length of stem with a cylindrical knotty core without taper.


lifting [arrachage (n.m.)]
Loosening and removing a plant from the ground as typically practised in nurseries. (3)


lifting the canopy [élagage de dégagement (n.m.)]
Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access. (3)


line planting [plantation en lignes (n.f.)]
see corridor planting


line thinning [éclaircie en ligne (n.f.)]
see thinning: row


lining out [repiquage en ligne (n.m.)]
Transplanting seedlings or rooted cuttings in rows in a nursery bed. (3)


litter [litière (n.f.)]
The uppermost layer, the L-layer, of organic debris on a forest floor, i.e., essentially the freshly fallen or only slightly decomposed vegetable material, mainly foliate (leaf litter) but also bark fragments, twigs, flowers, fruits, etc. This and the less decomposed humus are together often termed duff. (3)


live burning [brûlage immédiat (n.m.)]
The burning of green slash progressively as it is cut. (3)


live-crown ratio [taux de cime vivante (n.m.)]
A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. (10)


L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L (n.f.)]
Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L.


logged area [aire de coupe (n.f.)]
syn. logged-over area

see cutover


logging damage [dommage de coupe (n.m.)]
General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting. (10)

May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure of infertile subsoil and soil erosion.


logging debris [déchets de coupe (n.m.)]
see slash


lop and top [résidus d'ébranchage-façonnage (n.m.)]
The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen. (3)


lopping [ébranchage (n.m.)]
Chopping branches, tops, and small trees after felling into lengths such that the resultant slash will lie close to the ground. (3)


lopping and scattering [déchiquetage-épandage (n.m.)]
Lopping the slash created after felling and spreading it more or less evenly over the ground without burning. (3)


low thinning [éclaircie par le bas (n.f.)]
see thinning: low


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.