Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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machine weeding [désherbage mécanique (n.m.)]
see mechanical weeding


main crop [peuplement principal (n.m.)]
In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. (3)


manual weeding [désherbage manuel (n.m.)]
see weeding


manure [fumier (n.m.), lisier (n.m.)]
Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients. (20)


marking [marquage (n.m.)]
Putting a distinctive, more or less lasting, sign on a tree for purposes of identification. (3)

Note: Marking die must be registered to make a legal mark on wood.


marking gun [pistolet marqueur (n.m.)]
see paint gun


marking hammer [marteau forestier (n.m.), étampe (n.f.)]
syn. marking axe, marking cog

A light hammer having a die for stamping letters, figures, or other distinctive devices. (3)


marking rule [règle de marquage (n.f.)]
Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes. (10)


mature [mûr (adj.)]
In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands for which an overmature class has not been recognized). (5)


maturity class [classe de maturité (n.f.)]
Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes. (5)


mechanical planting [plantation mécanique (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation.


mechanical thinning [éclaircie systématique (n.f.)]
see thinning: mechanical


mechanical weeding [désherbage mécanique (n.m.)]
Removal of undesirable vegetation by mechanical means.


mechanized planting [plantation mécanisée (n.f.)]
see mechanical planting


mechanized thinning [éclaircie systématique (n.f.)]
see thinning: mechanical


mechanized weeding [désherbage mécanisé (n.m.)]
see weeding


merchantable [marchand (adj.)]
Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. (5)


merchantable snag [chicot marchand (n.m.)]
A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.


microsite [niche (écologique) (n.f.)]
The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. (3)


mist forest [forêt de brouillard (n.f.)]
A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands. (10)


mist propagation [brumisation (n.f.)]
An irrigation technique for rooting cuttings where water, with or without fertilizers, is sprayed in minute drops on the plants.


mixed stand [mélangé (adj.)]
A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. (1)

The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%.

cf. pure stand


mixedwood(s) [mixte (adj.), forêt(s) mixte(s) (n.f.)]
1. Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae and which are substantially intermingled in stands. Also, the wood of such trees mixed together in substantial quantities. (5)

2. A forest type in which 26-75% of the canopy is softwood. (5)


mixing [mélange (n.m.)]
Site preparation technique involving rotating tillers or other devices that mix soil and surface organic material with fine debris. (21)


model forest [forêt modèle (n.f.)]
A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis.


monoculture [monoculture (n.f.)]
1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. (12)

2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. (12)


mortality [mortalité (n.f.)]
Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. (5)


mounding [buttage (n.m.)]
Forming raised planting spots or mounds by the scooping up and inversion of a quantity of organic and mineral soil. (21)


mound planting [buttage (n.m.), plantation sur butte (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees on raised microsites.


mulch [mulch (n.m.), paillis (n.m.)]
Any loose covering on the surface of the soil, whether natural, like litter, or deliberately applied, like organic residues, crushed gravel, or artificial material like plastic, glass-wool, metal foil, and paper, used to reduce competing vegetation, retain humidity, or protect against frost and mechanical action of rain. (3)


mulching [paillage (n.m.)]
see mulch


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.