Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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race [race (n.f.)]
A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. When the distinguishing characteristics are adaptive, the term is synonymous with ecotype. (25)


raking [râtelage (n.m.)]
Site preparation technique using a bulldozer or similar equipment with a blade having teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large, coarse woody debris and rocks off a site and leaving smaller stones, soil, small finer slash, and woody debris in place. (21)

In Nova Scotia, raking corresponds to windrowing.


ramicorns [ramicorne (n.f.)]
Abnormally large branches that project at sharp acute angles from the bole and are persistent (often associated with previous weevil attack). (10)


recruitment [recrutement (n.m.)]
The plants involved in supplementation of a stand; trees that have entered a particular category during a given period, especially stems that have grown to a specified diameter. (3)


refill planting [regarnissage (n.m.)]
see fill planting


reforestation [reboisement (n.m.)]
syn. reafforestation

Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding.


regeneration [régénération (n.f.)]
Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. (5)


regeneration area [quartier de régénération (n.m.)]
The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view. (3)


regeneration block [affectation de régénération (n.f.)]
see periodic block


regeneration class [classe de régénération (n.f.)]
The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old. (5)


regeneration cut [coupe de régénération (n.f.)]
Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible. (3)


regeneration initiation [début de la régénération (n.m.)]
The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means. (5)


regeneration interval [durée de régénération (n.f.)]
The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems. (3)


regeneration period [période de régénération (n.f.)]
The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. (1)


regeneration survey [relevé de la régénération (n.m.)]
An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area.


regrowth [recrû (n.f.)]
A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth.


regular uneven-aged structure (balanced) [structure inéquienne régulière (n.f.)]
A stand in which three or more distinct age classes occupy approximately equal areas and provide a balanced distribution of diameter classes. (1)

cf. irregular uneven-aged structure


reinforcement planting [regarnissage (n.m.)]
see fill planting


relative thinning intensity [intensité relative d'éclaircie (n.f.)]
The periodic (annual) yield of a stand from thinnings, expressed as a percentage of its periodic annual increment. (3)


release [dégagement (n.m.)]
Freeing a tree or group of trees from more immediate competition by cutting or otherwise eliminating growth that is overtopping or closely surrounding them. (1)


repair planting [regarni (n.m.)]
see fill planting


replacement planting [regarni (n.m.)]
see fill planting


reproduction [régénération naturelle (n.f.)]
see regeneration


reproduction period [période de reproduction (n.f.)]
The process by which new individuals are produced from parent trees, by either sexual or asexual (vegetative) means


reserve [réserve (n.f.)]
Any tree or group of trees left unfelled in a stand that is being regenerated, and kept for part or whole of the next rotation. (3)

cf. high-forest-with-reserves system


reserve cutting [coupe à  blanc avec réserves (n.f.)]
see seed-tree method


reserved tree [arbre marqué en réserve (n.m.)]
see reserve


restocking [reboisement (n.m.)]
Renewal by self-sown seed or by vegetative means, or through sowing or planting, that results in a desired number of seedlings for the area concerned. (3)


ridge planting [plantation sur bourrelet (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. (3)


ring-barking [annélation partielle (n.f.)]
Removing a narrow strip of bark (only), all around (1) a living stem, in order to stimulate flowering or to girdle it; or (2) a felled stem or a log, for under-bark diameter measurement. (3)


ring stripping [annélation partielle (n.f.)]
see band girdling


ripper [défonceuse (n.f.)]
A toothed blade or set of heavy tines mounted at the front or rear of a vehicle for breaking up soft rock and hard ground, and tearing out stumps and boulders. Also a vehicle so equipped. (3)


ripper plough [charrue défonceuse (n.f.)]
A V-shaped plough mounted with a ripper blade used for scarification on frozen soil.


ripping [ripage (n.m.)]
The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 3-7 cm for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients. (19)


rock blade [lame de râteau (n.f.)]
see brush blade


roguing [élimination (n.f.)]
Systematic removal of individuals not desired for the perpetuation of a population, e.g., from a seed orchard or a nursery. (3)


root pruning [élagage des racines (n.m.)]
The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system and/or induce root proliferation by increasing the number of third- and higher-order roots within the root system when lifted. (23)


root puddling [pralinage des racines (n.m.)]
The act or treatment of immersing, sometimes several times in close succession, the root systems of bare-root planting stock in a clay slurry with the aim of improving outplant performance. (23)


root rake [râteau (n.m.)]
An implement, either mounted on the front of a dozer, skidder or forwarder, or trailed, having tines for collecting stumps and slash. (3)


root raking [râtelage (n.m.)]
see raking


rootstock [dépouillement des racines (n.m.)]
The root-bearing plant or plant part, usually stem or root, onto which another plant is grafted. (25)

cf. budding, graft, scion


root stripping [drageon racinaire (n.m.)]
1. The accidental removal of roots during lifting, handling, and planting, especially when caused by improper practices.

2. The removal of bark from roots. (23)


root sucker [taille des racines (n.m.)]
see sucker


root-to-shoot ratio [motte racinaire (n.m.)]
The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. (23)


root trimming [rapport système racinaire/système foliacé (n.f.)]
The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting. (23)


root wad [soulevage des plants (n.f.)]
The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted. (13)


rootwood [porte-greffe (n.m.)]
The secondary xylem of roots. (23)


root-wrenching [bois de racine (n.m.)]
A nursery operation to condition nursery stock by loosening the contact between soil and roots of seedlings in a nursery bed. (23)


rotary tiller [laboureur à lames rotatives (n.m.)]
A site preparation machine using hammers, teeth, tines, or flails mounted on a horizontal drum or horizontal or vertical shaft revolving at high speed. (23)


rotation [révolution (n.f.)]
The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity. (1)


rotation burning [brûlage cyclique (n.m.)]
Prescribed burning applied at regular intervals on a specific site as a means of pest control.


row thinning [éclaircie en ligne (n.f.)]
see thinning: row


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.