Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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saddle planting [plantation sur ensellement (n.f.)]
see hole planting


salvage cutting [coupe de récupération (n.f.)]
The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless. (1)


sanitation cutting [coupe d'assainissement (n.f.)]
The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. (1)


sanitation measures [mesures sanitaires (n.f.)]
The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens. (5)


sapling [gaule (n.f.)]
A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Also, a young tree having a diameter at breast height greater than 1 cm but less than the smallest merchantable diameter. (3)


satellite nursery [pépinière volante (n.f.)]
see field nursery


satisfactorily stocked [de densité relative satisfaisante (n.f.)]
see stocking: satisfactorily stocked


sawtimber [bois de sciage (n.m.)]
Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber. (5)


scalping [dégazonnement (n.m.)]
Paring off low and surface vegetation, with most of its roots, to expose a weed-free soil surface, generally preparatory to sowing or planting thereon. If done by chemicals, termed chemical screefing. (3)


scarification [scarifiage (n.m.), scarification (n.f.)]
1. [scarifiage (n.m)] Loosening the topsoil of open areas or breaking up the forest floor to assist the germination of natural seed from either standing trees or slash or to promote the occurrence of coppice or sucker growth.

2. [scarification (n.f.)] A chemical treatment applied to seed to enhance germination.


scion [greffon (n.m.)]
An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock). (25)


screefing [dégazonnement (n.m.)]
see scalping


scribe [rainette (n.f.)]
A tool for marking trees or round timber by scoring the outer surface. (3)


scrub [broussailles (n.f.)]
see brush


scrub control [essartage (n.f.)]
see brushing


second growth [seconde venue, de (n.f.)]
The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.


secondary species [essences secondaires (n.f.)]
A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species. (3)

cf. accessory species


seed bank [banque de semences (n.f.)]
A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability. (14)


seed bearer [semencier (none), porte-graines (n.m.)]
1. Any tree producing seed.

2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings. (3)


seed collection area [zone de récolte de semences (n.f.)]
A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest. (3)


seed cutting [coupe d'ensemencement (n.f.)]
Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose; the first of the shelterwood cuttings under a shelterwood system. (3)


seed orchard [verger à  graines (n.m.)]
A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, and easily harvestable seed crops. A clonal seed orchard is established by setting out clones as grafts or cuttings; a seedling seed orchard is established from selected seedling progenies. (3)


seed origin [origine des semences (n.f.)]
see provenance


seed pellet [semence enrobée (n.f.)]
see pelleting


seed production area [peuplement producteur de graines (n.m.)]
A forest stand identified as a good source of seed and in which individual trees are evaluated for desired characteristics. Unwanted trees and competing trees are removed to promote cone production. seed is collected periodically from standing trees or by felling sections as required.


seed source [origine des graines (n.f.)]
The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc. If the stand from which collections were made was exotic, the place where its seed originated is the original seed source.

cf. provenance


seed spot [placeau (n.m.)]
syn. seedspot

A prepared, limited space, e.g., a small, cultivated patch, within which (tree) seeds are sown. (3)


seed stand [peuplement producteur de graines (n.m.)]
Any stand used as a source of seed. (3)


seed trap [piège à semences (n.m.)]
A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination. (3)


seed tree [semencier (n.m.)]
A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration. (1)


seed year [année semencière (n.f.)]
The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production. Many periodic seeders produce heavy (bumper) seed crops during their seed years. (3)


seed-tree method [mode de régénération avec réserve de semenciers (n.m.)]
A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups. If these are retained for increment as well as seed, termed a reserve cutting. The objective is to create an even-aged stand. (1)


seed-tree removal [coupe des semenciers (n.f.)]
see final cutting


seed-tree system [mode de régénération par coupe rase avec semencier (n.m.)]
see seed-tree method


seedbed [lit de germination (n.m.)]
1. In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls. (3)

2. In nursery practice, and also in the field, a prepared area over which seed is sown. (3)


seeding [ensemencement (n.m.)]
aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft. (3)

broadcast [ensemencement ænbsp; la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area on which a forest stand is to be raised. (5)

direct [ensemencement direct]: The artificial systematic sowing of seeds by manual or mechanical means in an area on which a forest stand is to be raised. (5)

drill [ensemencement en ligne]: The sowing of seeds in shallow furrows across a whole area on which a forest stand is to be raised. A practice more common in nurseries. (5)

natural [ensemencement naturel]: The dispersal by natural agents of seeds from standing trees in proximity to a regenerating area or from slash scattered over that area. seeds may be dispersed by wind, birds, mammals, gravity, or flowing water or be released by fire from serotinous cones.

row [ensemencement en rangée]: The sowing of seed in deep furrows simultaneously with disc trenching for site preparation.

sheltered spot [ensemencement sous-abri]: The sowing of seeds under small conical shelters of translucent or opaque, bio- or photo-degradable material as a means of stabilizing the microsite and improving germination.

spot [ensemencement sur placeaux]: The sowing of seeds within small, cultivated, or otherwise-prepared patches, many of which are distributed over a whole area on which a forest stand is to be raised. (5)


seeding felling [coupe d'ensemencement (n.f.)]
see seed cutting


seeding lath [planche semoir (n.f.)]
A device, commonly of wood, for obtaining uniformly spaced drills in a seedbed and aiding the even distribution of hand-sown seed in them. (3)


seedling [semis (n.m.)]
A young tree, grown from seed, from the time of germination to the sapling stage, having a diameter at breast height of no more than 1 cm and a height of no more than 1.5 m.

bare-root [semis ænbsp; racines nues]: A seedling to be planted with its roots bare of soil. (1)

container [semis en récipient]: A seedling grown in a container and that is to be planted with roots still in its growth medium. (1)

plug [semis en douille]: A seedling lifted from its container with roots and rooting medium left undisturbed. (1)


seedling forest [futaie (n.f.)]
see high forest


selection [sélection (n.f.)]
Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation. (12)


selection cutting [coupe de jardinage (n.f.)]
Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth and seedling establishment. The cuts are usually a mix of regeneration cuts and improvement cuts. Selection cutting is not the same as selective cutting.


selection differential [différentiel de sélection (n.m.)]
The average phenotypic value of the selected individuals, expressed as a deviation from the population mean. (12)


selection forest [forêt jardinée (n.f.)]
Forest treated and managed under the selection system. (3)


selection method [jardinage (n.m.)]
A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. (1)


selection thinning [éclaircie jardinatoire (n.f.)]
see thinning: selection


selective cutting [coupe d'écrémage (n.f.)]
see high grading


selective harvesting [récolte d'écrémage (n.f.)]
see high grading


selective logging [récolte d'écrémage (n.f.)]
see high grading


self-pruning [élagage naturel (n.m.)]
The inherent ability of a tree species to shed dead branches at their junction with the live stem.


self-thinning [éclaircie naturelle (n.f.)]
Tree mortality from the effect of the competition arising between trees on the same site.


seral [sérial (n.m.)]
see succession


serotinous [sérotinal (adj.)]
Coming late; particularly applied to plant species or individuals with cones that remain on the tree without opening for one or more years (e.g., Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana).


severance felling [coupe de préparation de lisière (n.f.)]
A cleared strip cut through a stand so as to develop a wind-firm edge before making any fellings. (3)


shade tolerance [tolérance (n.f.)]
The relative capacity of a species to become established and persist under a canopy. (1)


shark-fin barrel [rouleau nageoire-de-requin (n.m.)]
A mechanical site preparation device consisting of pairs of metal barrels on which are welded steel fins along opposing spiral lines; this conformation causes circular motion and lateral scalping when the barrels are pulled over land to be planted or seeded.


shearing [traitement à  la cisaille (n.m.)]
1. A method of harvest using mechanical shears.

2. The shaping of a tree crown, particularly with respect to Christmas trees or ornamentals, by removing part of the leader and/or the ends of live branches to comply with a desired crown form.

3. A method of site preparation in which all standing material is removed at ground level using a shear blade attached to a large tractor. (1)

Known in Manitoba, Ontario and British Columbia as shear blading.


shelterbelt [rideau-abri (n.m.)]
A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc. (3)


shelterwood [abri (n.m.)]
see shelterwood cutting


shelterwood compartment system [mode de régénération par coupes progessives uniformes (n.m.)]
see shelterwood cutting: uniform shelterwood system


shelterwood cutting [coupe progressive (n.f.)]
Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular. (3)

irregular shelterwood system [mode de régénération par coupes progressives irrégulières]: Harvest cutting in which opening of the canopy is irregular and gradual; generally in groups, with the final cutting often in strips; regeneration is natural; regeneration interval is long, often up to half the rotation, and the resultant crop considerably uneven-aged and irregular. (3)

strip shelterwood system [mode de régénération par coupes progressives par bandes]: A shelterwood system in which regeneration cuttings are carried out on fairly wide strips, generally against the prevailing wind, and progress rapidly; regeneration is mainly natural, regeneration interval short, and the resultant crop fairly even-aged and regular. (3)

uniform shelterwood system [mode de régénération par coupes progressives uniformes]: A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened fairly evenly throughout the regeneration area; regeneration is mainly natural, though it may be supplemented artificially; regeneration interval is fairly short and the resultant crop more or less even-aged and regular. (3)


shoot pruning [élagage des rejets (n.m.)]
Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots.


shrub [arbrisseau (n.m.)]
A perennial plant differing from a perennial herb in its persistent and woody stem(s), and less definitely from a tree in its lower stature and the general absence of a well-defined main stem. (3)


side cutting [élagage des racines latérales (n.m.)]
see box pruning


side-hole planting [plantation en côté de potet (n.f.)]
see hole planting


silvics [écologie forestière (n.f.)]
The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. (1)


silvicultural decision model [modèle de décision (n.m.)]
A computer model or system that permits the simulation and possibly prediction of the interaction of such factors as site class, access, managed-stand volume, and logging costs to assist in decisionmaking regarding silvicultural practices in individual stands.


silvicultural efficacity [efficacité sylvicole (n.f.)]
The capacity of a herbicide indirectly to promote positive growth responses in crop trees. (27)


silvicultural regime [traitement sylvicole (n.m.)]
A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective.


silvicultural rotation [âge d'exploitabilité naturelle (n.m.)]
The rotation through which a species maintains satisfactory growth and reproduction on a given site. (3)


silvicultural system [régime sylvicole (n.m.)]
A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting method with which the regeneration is established. (1)


silviculture [sylviculture (n.f.)]
The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. (3)


silvipasture [système sylvopastorale (n.m.)]
An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. (28)


simple coppice system [traitement en taillis simple (n.m.)]
A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short. (3)


single-moldboard plough [charrue à  versoir simple (n.f.)]
A plough with one moldboard, generally right-hand, turning the whole furrow slice to one side of the furrow. (3)


single-tree selection method [jardinage par arbre (n.m.)]
A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees of any size are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. (1)


site [station (n.f.)]
A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. (1)


site amelioration [amélioration de la station (n.f.)]
The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. (5)
Expressed in cubic metres per hectare per year.

cf. productivity


site class [classe de station (n.f.)]
Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use. (5)


site classification [classification de la station (n.f.)]
Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield.


site factor [facteur de station (n.m.)]
An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites.


site improvement [amélioration de la station (n.m.)]
Modifications to a given site in order to improve growing conditions for a specific species or mixture of species. (10)


site index [indice de station (n.m.)]
An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. (5)
May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species.


site preparation [préparation de terrain (n.f.)]
A mechanical, fire, chemical, or hand treatment that modifies the site to provide favorable conditions for natural or artificial regeneration. (1) In Manitoba and Saskatchewan, treatment to promote natural regeneration is termed scarification.


site quality [qualité de station (n.f.)]
The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). (1)


size classes [classe de dimension (n.f.)]
Ranges in tree sizes representing stages in the development of a tree or stand. (1)


slash [rémanent(s) (n.m.)]
The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems and the heavier branchwood (heavy slash), lighter tops and branchwood, twigs, leaves, bark, and chips (light slash). (3)


slash chopper [broyeuse de rémanents (n.f.)]
see brush chopper


slash disposal [traitement des rémanents (n.m.), élimination des rémanents (n.f.)]
The treatment or handling of slash, particularly so as to reduce fire or insect hazard. (3)


slash removal [enlèvement des rémanents (n.m.)]
see slash disposal


slashing [débroussaillement (n.m.)]
A form of cleaning. (3)


sleeve planting [plantation en tube (n.f.)]
see tube planting


slit planting [plantation en fente (n.f.)]
Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Note: Making standing T-shaped cuts, generally with a special tool, is sometimes termed T-notching. (3)


snag [chicot (n.m.)]
A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. (3)


snagging [arasement des chicots (n.m.)]
Removing or cutting away snags, on land or in water. (3)


soft snag [chicot pourri (n.m.)]
A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion. (13)


softwood(s) [résineux (n.m.)]
1. Cone-bearing or aril-bearing trees with needle or scale-like leaves belonging to the botanical group Gymnospermae. Also, stands of such trees and the wood produced by them. (5)

2. A forest type in which 76-100% of the canopy is softwood. (5)


soil scarification [scarifiage (n.m.)]
see scarification


somatic embryogenesis [embryogenèse somatique (n.f.)]
A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo.


sowing [ensemencement (n.m.)]
see seeding


sowing brick [motte à  semis (n.f.)]
A prepared, sometimes fertilized, block or ball of loam, peat, plastic foam, etc., into which one or more seeds are pressed, so that, on planting out, the emergent seedling can have a better start in an unfavorable environment. (3)


spacing [espacement (n.m.)]
n: The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand.

v: see thinning: spacing


spot planting [plantation sur placeaux (n.f.)]
Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. (3)


spot scarifier [scarificateur sur placeaux (n.m.)]
A scarification implement enabling site preparation on patches.


spot seeding [ensemencement localisé (n.m.)]
see seed spot


spot weeding [désherbage localisé (n.m.)]
Removing undesirable vegetation from patches.


spray gun [pistolet vaporisateur (n.m.)]
see paint gun


spreader [dispersant (n.m.)]
Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited.


spring-tine cultivator [cultivateur à  dents souples (n.m.)]
An implement designed to loosen the soil surface by the action of spring-loaded retractible teeth.


sprout [rejet de taillis (n.m.)]
Generally, any shoot arising from a plant. More particularly, a shoot arising from the base of a plant, from the stool (stool shoot) or from the root (sucker). (3)


spud [bêche à  planter (n.f.)]
see planting bar


stagnant [stagnant (adj.)]
Describes condition of stands whose growth and development have all but ceased due to poor site and/or excessive stocking. (5)


stand [peuplement (n.m.)]
A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. (5)


stand age [âge (du peuplement) (n.m.)]
see age


stand composition [composition d'un peuplement (n.f.)]
see composition


stand condition [état d'un peuplement (n.m.)]
The descriptive measurement of a stand by the criteria of composition, health, age, size, volume, or spatial arrangement. (13)


stand density [densité de peuplement (n.f.)]
A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand, commonly expressed by various growing-space ratios of crown length to tree height; crown diameter to dbh or crown diameter to tree height; or of stem spacing to tree height. (3)

Expressed on a per hectare basis.

cf. stocking


stand density index [indice de densité de peuplement (n.m.)]
Any index for evaluating stand density such as those of Curtis, Mulloy, Reinecke. (5)


stand density management diagram [diagramme d'aménagement de la densité de peuplement (n.m.)]
A two-dimensional graph showing the logarithmic relationship between declining mean stem frequency and increasing mean tree size, as mean stand diameter and dominant height increase in pure even-aged stands.


stand development [développement d'un peuplement (n.m.)]
The growth of a stand through its various developmental stages - from seedling or coppice through thicket, sapling, and pole to the tree stage, i.e. to maturity, and finally to overmaturity. (3)


stand establishment [établissement d'un peuplement (n.m.)]
see establishment


stand improvement [amélioration d'un peuplement (n.f.)]
see timber stand improvement


stand model [modèle de peuplement (n.m.)]
A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height.


stand table [table de peuplement (n.f.)]
A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. (5)


stand type [type de peuplement (n.m.)]
see forest type


standard [réserve (none)]
A tree selected to remain standing, after the rest of the stand has been felled over a younger or a new crop, for some special purpose, e.g., shelter, seeding, production of a special quality or size of timber. (3)


standing crop [peuplement forestier (n.m.)]
see crop


stock table [table de stock (n.f.)]
A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. (5)


stocked quadrat [parcelle régénérée (n.f.)]
In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc.


stocking [densité relative (n.f.)]
A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm. In this context, "tree cover" includes seedlings and saplings; hence, the concept carries no connotation of a particular age. Stocking may be described in regionally or locally developed classes, or as a percentage of regional or local normal standards, which vary according to site-specific conditions. (5)

cf. stand density

fully stocked [de densité relative adéquate]: Productive forest land stocked with trees of merchantable species. These trees by number and distribution or by average dbh, basal area, or volume are such that at rotation age they will produce a timber stand that occupies the potentially productive ground. They will provide a merchantable timber yield according to the potential of the land. The stocking, number of trees, and distribution required to achieve this will be determined from regional or local yield tables or by some other appropriate method. (5)

ideally stocked[de densité relative idéale]: see normally stocked

irregularly stocked[de densité relative irrégulière]: see partially stocked

nonstocked [densité relative nulle, de]: Productive forest land that lacks trees completely or that is so deficient in trees, either young or old, that at the end of one rotation, the residual stand of merchantable tree species, if any, will be insufficient to allow utilization in an economic operation. (5)

normally stocked [de densité relative normale]: Productive forest land covered with trees of merchantable species of any age. These trees, by number and distribution, or by average dbh, basal area, or volume, are such that at rotation age they will produce a timber stand of the maximum merchantable timber yield. This yield must satisfy the site potential of the land as reported by the best available regional or local yield tables. For stands of less than rotation age, a range of stocking classes both above and below normal may be predicted to approach and produce a normal stocking at rotation age and may, therefore, be included. This is because greater or lesser mortality rates will occur in over- or understocked stands as compared with those in a normal stand. (5)

NSR (not sufficiently or not satisfactorily restocked or regenerated) [insuffisamment régénéré]: Inadequate stocking. Productive forest land that has been denuded and has failed partially or completely to regenerate naturally or to be artificially regenerated.The regeneration must contain a minimum number of well-established, healthy trees that are free-from-noncrop-competition and sufficient to produce a merchantable timber stand at rotation age. (5)

optimally stocked[de densité relative optimale]: see normally stocked

overstocked [de densité relative excessive]: Productive forest land stocked with more trees of merchantable species than normal or full stocking would require. Growth is in some respect retarded and the full number of trees will not reach merchantable size by rotation age according to the regional or local yield or stock tables for the particular site and species. (5)

partially stocked [de densité relative partielle]: Productive forest land stocked with trees of merchantable species insufficient to utilize the complete potential of the land for growth such that they will not occupy the whole site by rotation age without additional stocking. Explicit definition in stems per hectare, crown closure, relative basal area, etc., is locally or regionally defined and is site-specific. (5)

satisfactorily stocked [de densité relative satisfaisante]: Productive forest land that has been regenerated naturally or artificially to at least a minimum number of well-established, healthy trees of merchantable species that are free-from-noncrop-competition and sufficient to produce a merchantable timber stand at rotation age.(5)


stocking control [surveillance du matériel relatif (n.f.)]
The regulation and, more particularly, the limitation of seedling populations by natural, or direct or indirect artificial factors.


stocking density [proportion de surface occupée (n.f.)]
A measure of the proportion of the area actually occupied by trees. (13)


stocking guide [guide de stocking (n.m.)]
Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure.


stool [souche-mère (n.f.)]
1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots. (3)

2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc. (3)


stool shoot [rejet de souche (n.f.)]
see sprout


storied high forest [futaie pluriétagée (n.f.)]
A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. (3)


story [étage (n.m.)]
A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies. (3)

A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied. A forest having two stories (the overstory and the understory) is called two-storied.


stratification [stratification (n.f.)]
The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination. The term may also apply to physical or chemical treatment of seed designed to achieve the same end.


strip application [traitement par bandes (n.m.)]
see band application


strip cropping [plantation en lisières (n.f.)]
Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. (15)


strip cutting [coupe par bandes (n.f.)]
Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. (2)
Considered to be a variation of clearcutting.


strip felling [coupe par bandes (n.f.)]
see strip cutting


strip planting [plantation en bandes (n.f.)]
Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. (3)


strip shelterwood [coupes progressives par bandes (n.f.)]
see shelterwood cutting


strip spraying [pulvérisation en bandes (n.f.)]
see band application


strip thinning [éclaircie en bandes (n.f.)]
see thinning: row


strip-and-group system [mode de régénération par coupes progressives en placettes et bandes (n.m.)]
A modification of the shelterwood strip system in which, in addition to the normal uniform seed cutting, groups of advance growth are freed both in the strip and closely ahead of it, along with further group cuttings to initiate regeneration; regeneration is mainly natural; regeneration interval is relatively short and the resultant crop fairly even-aged and regular. (3)


structure [structure (n.f.)]
The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). (1)


stub [chicot de branche (n.m.)]
The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem. (3)


stump blade [lame dessoucheuse (n.f.)]
see brush blade


stump extraction [dessouchage (n.m.)]
A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. (3) Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems.


stump sprout [rejet de souche (n.m.)]
see sprout


stump treatment [badigeonnage de souches (n.m.)]
Application of herbicides to or near hardwood stumps to prevent coppicing. (2) Also, fungicides or paint can be applied to prevent fungal infection.


subdominant [classe de cime subdominante (n.f.)]
see crown class: intermediate


subsidiary crop [peuplement secondaire (n.m.)]
see secondary species


succession [succession (n.f.)]
The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. (3)


sucker [drageon (n.m.)]
A shoot or tree originating from adventitious buds on roots. (1)


suppressed tree [élimination (n.f.)]
The process whereby certain trees, shrubs, etc., in a community become weakened, essentially through the competition of the neighbors but also by extension, through human intervention and selective browsing by livestock. (3)


suppression [élimination (n.f.)]
The process whereby certain trees, shrubs, etc., in a community become weakened, essentially through the competition of the neighbors but also by extension, through human intervention and selective browsing by livestock. (3)


sustainable development [développement durable (n.m.)]
Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity, to ensure that the use of forest today does not damage prospects for its use by future generations.


sustainable forestry [foresterie durable (n.f.)]
Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions for continued evolution of species.


sustained yield [rendement soutenu (n.m.)]
The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management.


systematic thinning [éclaircie systématique (n.f.)]
see thinning: mechanical


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.