Terms - Silvicultural Terms in Canada
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wedge system [couché par le vent (n.m.)]
A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural; regeneration interval is short and the young crop fairly even-aged. (3)


weed tree [balancement au vent (n.m.)]
Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question. (3)


weeding [brise-vent (n.m.)]
A release treatment in stands during the seedling stage that eliminates or suppresses undesirable vegetation regardless of crown position. (1)


whip [chablis (n.m.)]
1. A bare-root hardwood planting stock.

2. Any slender tree that the wind causes to lacerate the crowns of its neighbors. (3)


wildland [stable au vent (n.f.)]
Uncultivated land other than fallow. Land currently little influenced by human activity.


wildling [andain (n.m.)]
syn.: wilding, wild seedling

A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce. (3)


wind barrier [plantation sur entrandain (n.m.)]
see windbreak


wind belt [mettre en andain (n.m.)]
see windbreak


wind bend [déracinement par le vent (adj.)]
Condition of trees having a curved stem as a consequence of wind action or compression due to heavy load on the crown of the tree.

cf. windfirm


wind lean [arbre loup (adj.)]
Condition of trees having a leaning stem, result of partial uprooting or wind action.

cf. windfirm


wind rock [section d'aménagement (n.m.)]
Movement of tree stems in the wind, which may lead to chafing of the collar and sometimes of the roots, and, in very wet soil, loosening of the ground. (3)


windbreak [soulevage (n.m.)]
A small-scale shelterbelt or other barrier, natural or artificial, maintained against the wind. (3)


windfall [semis de l'année (n.m.)]
1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind.

2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind. (3)


windfirm [table de rendement (adj.)]
Of trees, able to withstand strong winds, i.e., to resist windthrow, windrocking, and major breakage. Such trees may not remain upright but show wind lean or wind bend or both. (3)


windrow [andain (n.m.)]
Slash, brushwood, etc., concentrated along a line so as to clear the intervening ground between two of them. (2)


windrow planting [plantation sur entrandain (n.f.)]
Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. (3)


windrowing [mettre en andain (none)]
see windrow


windthrow [déracinement par le vent (n.m.)]
1. Uprooting by the wind.
2. Tree or trees so uprooted. (3)


wolf tree [arbre loup (n.m.)]
A tree, generally overtopping and of poor form, that occupies more growing space than its commercial value warrants. (1)


working group [section d'aménagement (n.f.)]
An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group).


wrenching [soulevage (none)]
see root-wrenching


        Terms in the glossary are arranged alphabetically. In some instances, terms within a family (for example, thinning) are grouped together to make it easier for the reader to compare them. In such cases, each member of a family (for example, precommercial thinning) is also listed alphabetically, but the reader is referred to the family name.

        Each term appears in boldface letters and is followed by its equivalent term in French in brackets. Terms used as both nouns and verbs are identified as such by n and v, respectively. The generic of the French equivalent term is offered in this edition, and refers to the dominant noun when the equivalent is not a single word.

        The number in parentheses following a term refers to the source of the definition. These sources are listed below. In many cases, definitions taken from such sources have been paraphrased and/or edited to agree with house style. This publication is the source of those definitions not followed by numbers in parentheses.

1. Adams, D.L., et al. 1989. Recommended changes in silviculture terminology. Unpublished. Silviculture Instructors Subgroup, Silviculture Working Group (D2), Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC.

2. Crcha, J.; Martel, J.; Savard, J. 1977. Normes de traitements sylvicoles. Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, Québec.

3. Ford-Robertson, F.C. 1971. Terminology of forest science, technology practice and products. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.

4. Forestry Statistics and Systems Branch, Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Reporting and summarizing forestry change data—Manitoba pilot study. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ont. Inf. Rep. PI-X-36.

5. Haddon, B.D., editor. 1988. Forest inventory terms in Canada. 3rd ed. Canadian Forest Inventory Committee, Forestry Canada.

6. Merrill, D.F.; Alexander, M.E., editors. 1987. Glossary of forest fire management terms. 4th ed. National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management, Ottawa. Publication NRCC No. 26516.

7. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. No date. Glossary of terms.

8. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Glossary of terms. Unpublished.

9. Province of Saskatchewan. 1989. Silviculture definitions. Unpublished.

10. Smith, D.M. 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Wright, J.W. 1976. Introduction to forest genetics. Academic Press, New York.

12. Zobel, B.; Talbert, J. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Sources Added to Second Edition

13. Agriculture Handbook No. 553. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

14. Holmes, S. 1979. S. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. Longman Group Ltd., London.

15. Zumer-Linder, M. 1979. Environmental word-list. Ecological Studies 3. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.

16. Forestry Commission Leaflet No. 77. Oxford, UK.

17. Dawkins, H.C. 1958. The management of natural tropical high forest with special reference to Uganda. p. 127–129 in Inst. Paper No. 34, Int. For. Inst., Oxford, UK.

18. Moore, R.; Mills, T. 1977. An environmental guide to Western surface mining. Part two: Impacts, mitigation and monitoring, p. VI.1-VI.9. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

19. 1974. A glossary of terms used in range management. 2nd ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

20. Collocott, T.C. (Ed.). 1971. Dictionary of science and technology. W. & R. Chambers Ltd., Edinburgh.

21. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. 1993. Personal communications.

22. Winters, R.K. (Ed.). 1977. Terminology of forest science, technology, practice and products. English-language version. Addendum 1. Soc. Am. For., Washington, DC.

23. Sutton, R.F.; Tinus, R.W. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph No. 24. For. Sci. 29 (Suppl.).

24. Franzese, M.L.; Thompson, T.J.; McNutt, J. 1978. Comp. glossary of forestry related terms. Potlach Corporation, Lewiston.

25. Snyder, E.B. 1972. Glossary for forest tree improvement workers. Southern For. Exp. Stn., For. Serv., US Dep. Agr. 22  p.

26. Steppler, H.A.; Nair, P.K.R. 1987. Agroforestry: A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 276 p.

27. Sutton, R.F. 1985. Vegetation management in Canadian forestry. Govt. Can., Can. For. Serv. Sault-Ste-Marie, Ont. Inf  Rep. O-X-369. 34 p. + Append.

28. Ontario Ministry of Natural Ressources. 1987. Timber management guidelines for the protection of tourism values.

29. Thompson, A.J.; Fleming, R. 1991. Legislative and policy limits to successful integrated pest management in Canada’s forest. For. Chron. 67(5):493-499.